oracle中如何监控索引的使用

如何监控索引的使用?  
研究发现,oracle数据库使用的索引不会超过总数的25%,或者不易他们期望被使用的方式使用。通过 监控数据库索引的使用,释放那些未被使用的索引,从而节省维护索引的开销,优化性能。

1、在oracle8i中,确定使用了那个索引的方法意味着要对存在语共享SQL区中的所有语句运行EXPLIAN PALN,然后查询计划表中的OPERATION列,从而识别有OBJECT_OWNER和OBJECT_NAME列所确定的那个索引上的索引访问。
下面是一个监控索引使用的脚本,这个脚本仅仅是一个样品,在某种条件下成立:

条件:
运行这个脚本的用户拥有权限解释所有的v$sqlarea中的sql,除了不是被SYS装载的。
plan_table.remarks能够别用来决定与特权习惯的错误。
对所有的共享池中SQL,参数OPTIMIZER_GOAL是一个常量,无视v$sqlarea.optimizer_mode。
两次快照之间,统计资料被再次分析过。
没有语句别截断。
所有的对象都是局部的。
所有被引用的表或视图或者是被运行脚本的用户所拥有,或者完全有资格的名字或同义词被使用。
自从上次快照以来,没有不受”欢迎”的语句被冲洗出共享池(例如,在装载)。
对于所有的语句, v$sqlarea.version_count = 1 (children)。

脚本:
Code: [Copy to clipboard]
set echo off
Rem Drop and recreate PLAN_TABLE for EXPLAIN PLAN
drop table plan_table;
create table PLAN_TABLE (
statement_id     varchar2(30),
timestamp      date,
remarks       varchar2(80),
operation      varchar2(30),
options        varchar2(255),
object_node     varchar2(128),
object_owner     varchar2(30),
object_name     varchar2(30),
object_instance    numeric,
object_type     varchar2(30),
optimizer      varchar2(255),
search_columns     number,
id            numeric,
parent_id        numeric,
position        numeric,
cost        numeric,
cardinality        numeric,
bytes        numeric,
other_tag      varchar2(255),
partition_start   varchar2(255),
partition_stop   varchar2(255),
partition_id    numeric,
other        long,
distribution    varchar2(30),
cpu_cost        numeric,
io_cost        numeric,
temp_space        numeric,
access_predicates  varchar2(4000),
filter_predicates  varchar2(4000));

Rem Drop and recreate SQLTEMP for taking a snapshot of the SQLAREA
drop table sqltemp;
create table sqltemp  (
ADDR         VARCHAR2 (16),
SQL_TEXT         VARCHAR2 (2000),
DISK_READS        NUMBER,
EXECUTIONS        NUMBER,
PARSE_CALLS     NUMBER);

set echo on
Rem Create procedure to populate the plan_table by executing
Rem explain plan…for ‘sqltext’ dynamically
create or replace procedure do_explain (
addr IN varchar2, sqltext IN varchar2)
as dummy varchar2 (1100);
mycursor integer;
ret integer;
my_sqlerrm varchar2 (85);
begin dummy:=’EXPLAIN PLAN SET STATEMENT_ID=’ ;
dummy:=dummy||””||addr||””||’ FOR ‘||sqltext;
mycursor := dbms_sql.open_cursor;
dbms_sql.parse(mycursor,dummy,dbms_sql.v7);
ret := dbms_sql.execute(mycursor);
dbms_sql.close_cursor(mycursor);
commit;
exception — Insert errors into PLAN_TABLE…
when others then my_sqlerrm := substr(sqlerrm,1,80);
insert into plan_table(statement_id,remarks) values (addr,my_sqlerrm);
— close cursor if exception raised on EXPLAIN PLAN
dbms_sql.close_cursor(mycursor);
end;
/

Rem Start EXPLAINing all S/I/U/D statements in the shared pool
declare
— exclude statements with v$sqlarea.parsing_schema_id = 0 (SYS)
cursor c1 is select address, sql_text, DISK_READS, EXECUTIONS, PARSE_CALLS
from v$sqlarea
where command_type in (2,3,6,7)
and parsing_schema_id != 0;
cursor c2 is select addr, sql_text from sqltemp;
addr2         varchar(16);
sqltext         v$sqlarea.sql_text%type;
dreads         v$sqlarea.disk_reads%type;
execs         v$sqlarea.executions%type;
pcalls         v$sqlarea.parse_calls%type;
begin open c1;
fetch c1 into addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls;
while (c1%found) loop
insert into sqltemp values(addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls);
commit;
fetch c1 into addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls;
end  loop;
close c1;
open c2;
fetch c2 into addr2, sqltext;
while (c2%found) loop
do_explain(addr2,sqltext);
fetch c2 into addr2, sqltext;
end  loop;
close c2;
end;
/

Rem Generate a report of index usage based on the number of times
Rem a SQL statement using that index was executed
select p.owner, p.name, sum(s.executions) totexec
from sqltemp s,
(select distinct statement_id stid, object_owner owner, object_name name
from plan_table where operation = ‘INDEX’) p
where s.addr = p.stid
group by p.owner, p.name
order by 2 desc;

Rem Perform cleanup on exit (optional)
delete from plan_table
where statement_id in
( select addr from sqltemp );
drop table sqltemp;

关于这个脚本,有几个重要的地方需要注意,即它可能一起明显的开销,因此,应该在仔细地进行 权衡后才把它应用到繁忙的生产应用系统中区。

2、oracle9i中如何确定索引的使用情况
在oracle9i中,情况会简单得多,因为有一个新得字典视图V$SQL_PLAN存储了实际计划,这些计划用于执行共享SQL区中得语句。V$SQL_PLAN视图很类似与计划表,但V$SQL_PLAN使用ADDRESS和HASH_VALUE列 来识别语句, 而计划表使用用户提供得STATEMENT_ID来识别语句。下面的SQL显示了在一个oracle9i数据库中,由出现在共享SQL区中语句使用的所有索引
[/code]
select object_owner, object_name, options, count(*)
from  v$sql_plan
where operation=’INDEX’
and  object_owner!=’SYS’
group by object_owner, object_name, operation, options
order by count(*) desc;
[/code]

所有基于共享SQL区中的信心来识别索引使用情况的方法, 都可能会收集到不完整的信息。共享SQL区是一 个动态结构,除非能对它进行足够频繁的采样, 否则在有关索引使用的情况的信息被收集之前,SQL语句可 能就已经(因为老化)被移出缓存了。oracle9i提供了解决这个问题的方案,即它为alter index提供了一个
monitoring usage子句。当启用monitoring usage 时,oralce记录简单的yes或no值,以指出在监控间隔 期间某个索引是否被使用。

为了演示这个新特性,你可以使用下面的例子:
(a) Create and populate a small test table
(b) Create Primary Key index on that table
(c) Query v$object_usage: the monitoring has not started yet
(d) Start monitoring of the index usage
(e) Query v$object_usage to see the monitoring in progress
(f) Issue the SELECT statement which uses the index
(g) Query v$object_usage again to see that the index has been used
(h) Stop monitoring of the index usage
(i) Query v$object_usage to see that the monitoring sDetailed steps:

(a) Create and populate a small test table
create table products  (
prod_id number(3),
prod_name_code varchar2(5));

insert into products values(1,’aaaaa’);
insert into products values(2,’bbbbb’);
insert into products values(3,’ccccc’);
insert into products values(4,’ddddd’);
commit;

(b) Create Primary Key index on that table
alter table products  add (constraint products_pk primary key (prod_id));

(c) Query v$object_usage: the monitoring has not started yet
column 如何监控索引的使用?  研究发现,oracle数据库使用的索引不会超过总数的25%,或者不易他们期望被使用的方式使用。通过 监控数据库索引的使用,释放那些未被使用的索引,从而节省维护索引的开销,优化性能。

1、在oracle8i中,确定使用了那个索引的方法意味着要对存在语共享SQL区中的所有语句运行EXPLIAN PALN,然后查询计划表中的OPERATION列,从而识别有OBJECT_OWNER和OBJECT_NAME列所确定的那个索引上的索引访问。
下面是一个监控索引使用的脚本,这个脚本仅仅是一个样品,在某种条件下成立:

条件:
运行这个脚本的用户拥有权限解释所有的v$sqlarea中的sql,除了不是被SYS装载的。
plan_table.remarks能够别用来决定与特权习惯的错误。
对所有的共享池中SQL,参数OPTIMIZER_GOAL是一个常量,无视v$sqlarea.optimizer_mode。
两次快照之间,统计资料被再次分析过。
没有语句别截断。
所有的对象都是局部的。
所有被引用的表或视图或者是被运行脚本的用户所拥有,或者完全有资格的名字或同义词被使用。
自从上次快照以来,没有不受”欢迎”的语句被冲洗出共享池(例如,在装载)。
对于所有的语句, v$sqlarea.version_count = 1 (children)。

脚本:
Code: [Copy to clipboard]
set echo off
Rem Drop and recreate PLAN_TABLE for EXPLAIN PLAN
drop table plan_table;
create table PLAN_TABLE (
statement_id     varchar2(30),
timestamp      date,
remarks       varchar2(80),
operation      varchar2(30),
options        varchar2(255),
object_node     varchar2(128),
object_owner     varchar2(30),
object_name     varchar2(30),
object_instance    numeric,
object_type     varchar2(30),
optimizer      varchar2(255),
search_columns     number,
id            numeric,
parent_id        numeric,
position        numeric,
cost        numeric,
cardinality        numeric,
bytes        numeric,
other_tag      varchar2(255),
partition_start   varchar2(255),
partition_stop   varchar2(255),
partition_id    numeric,
other        long,
distribution    varchar2(30),
cpu_cost        numeric,
io_cost        numeric,
temp_space        numeric,
access_predicates  varchar2(4000),
filter_predicates  varchar2(4000));

Rem Drop and recreate SQLTEMP for taking a snapshot of the SQLAREA
drop table sqltemp;
create table sqltemp  (
ADDR         VARCHAR2 (16),
SQL_TEXT         VARCHAR2 (2000),
DISK_READS        NUMBER,
EXECUTIONS        NUMBER,
PARSE_CALLS     NUMBER);

set echo on
Rem Create procedure to populate the plan_table by executing
Rem explain plan…for ‘sqltext’ dynamically
create or replace procedure do_explain (
addr IN varchar2, sqltext IN varchar2)
as dummy varchar2 (1100);
mycursor integer;
ret integer;
my_sqlerrm varchar2 (85);
begin dummy:=’EXPLAIN PLAN SET STATEMENT_ID=’ ;
dummy:=dummy||””||addr||””||’ FOR ‘||sqltext;
mycursor := dbms_sql.open_cursor;
dbms_sql.parse(mycursor,dummy,dbms_sql.v7);
ret := dbms_sql.execute(mycursor);
dbms_sql.close_cursor(mycursor);
commit;
exception — Insert errors into PLAN_TABLE…
when others then my_sqlerrm := substr(sqlerrm,1,80);
insert into plan_table(statement_id,remarks) values (addr,my_sqlerrm);
— close cursor if exception raised on EXPLAIN PLAN
dbms_sql.close_cursor(mycursor);
end;
/

Rem Start EXPLAINing all S/I/U/D statements in the shared pool
declare
— exclude statements with v$sqlarea.parsing_schema_id = 0 (SYS)
cursor c1 is select address, sql_text, DISK_READS, EXECUTIONS, PARSE_CALLS
from v$sqlarea
where command_type in (2,3,6,7)
and parsing_schema_id != 0;
cursor c2 is select addr, sql_text from sqltemp;
addr2         varchar(16);
sqltext         v$sqlarea.sql_text%type;
dreads         v$sqlarea.disk_reads%type;
execs         v$sqlarea.executions%type;
pcalls         v$sqlarea.parse_calls%type;
begin open c1;
fetch c1 into addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls;
while (c1%found) loop
insert into sqltemp values(addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls);
commit;
fetch c1 into addr2,sqltext,dreads,execs,pcalls;
end  loop;
close c1;
open c2;
fetch c2 into addr2, sqltext;
while (c2%found) loop
do_explain(addr2,sqltext);
fetch c2 into addr2, sqltext;
end  loop;
close c2;
end;
/

Rem Generate a report of index usage based on the number of times
Rem a SQL statement using that index was executed
select p.owner, p.name, sum(s.executions) totexec
from sqltemp s,
(select distinct statement_id stid, object_owner owner, object_name name
from plan_table where operation = ‘INDEX’) p
where s.addr = p.stid
group by p.owner, p.name
order by 2 desc;

Rem Perform cleanup on exit (optional)
delete from plan_table
where statement_id in
( select addr from sqltemp );
drop table sqltemp;

关于这个脚本,有几个重要的地方需要注意,即它可能一起明显的开销,因此,应该在仔细地进行 权衡后才把它应用到繁忙的生产应用系统中区。

2、oracle9i中如何确定索引的使用情况
在oracle9i中,情况会简单得多,因为有一个新得字典视图V$SQL_PLAN存储了实际计划,这些计划用于执行共享SQL区中得语句。V$SQL_PLAN视图很类似与计划表,但V$SQL_PLAN使用ADDRESS和HASH_VALUE列 来识别语句, 而计划表使用用户提供得STATEMENT_ID来识别语句。下面的SQL显示了在一个oracle9i数据库中,由出现在共享SQL区中语句使用的所有索引
[/code]
select object_owner, object_name, options, count(*)
from  v$sql_plan
where operation=’INDEX’
and  object_owner!=’SYS’
group by object_owner, object_name, operation, options
order by count(*) desc;
[/code]

所有基于共享SQL区中的信心来识别索引使用情况的方法, 都可能会收集到不完整的信息。共享SQL区是一 个动态结构,除非能对它进行足够频繁的采样, 否则在有关索引使用的情况的信息被收集之前,SQL语句可 能就已经(因为老化)被移出缓存了。oracle9i提供了解决这个问题的方案,即它为alter index提供了一个
monitoring usage子句。当启用monitoring usage 时,oralce记录简单的yes或no值,以指出在监控间隔 期间某个索引是否被使用。

为了演示这个新特性,你可以使用下面的例子:
(a) Create and populate a small test table
(b) Create Primary Key index on that table
(c) Query v$object_usage: the monitoring has not started yet
(d) Start monitoring of the index usage
(e) Query v$object_usage to see the monitoring in progress
(f) Issue the SELECT statement which uses the index
(g) Query v$object_usage again to see that the index has been used
(h) Stop monitoring of the index usage
(i) Query v$object_usage to see that the monitoring sDetailed steps:

(a) Create and populate a small test table
create table products  (
prod_id number(3),
prod_name_code varchar2(5));

insert into products values(1,’aaaaa’);
insert into products values(2,’bbbbb’);
insert into products values(3,’ccccc’);
insert into products values(4,’ddddd’);
commit;

(b) Create Primary Key index on that table
alter table products  add (constraint products_pk primary key (prod_id));

(c) Query v$object_usage: the monitoring has not started yet
column

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